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Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Active and Passive Voice


Kalimat Aktif dan Kalimat Pasif
Kata kerja transitif mempunyai dua voice (ragam gramatikal), aktif dan pasif.
1) Bentuk aktif adalah orang, binatang, atau benda yang ditunjukkan oleh subjek dikatakan
melakukan sesuatu pada yang lain.
Contoh: Karim killed a tiger. Karim membunuh seekor harimau
2) Bentuk pasif adalah orang, binatang atau benda dikatakan menderita sesuatu dari sesuatu yang lain.
Contoh: A tiger was killed by Karim. Seekor harimau dibunuh oleh Karim
Bentuk pasif :
To Be + Past Participle
Aturan-aturan :
a) Kata kerja transitif tidak digunakan dalam bentuk pasif, kecuali kalau kata kerja itu menggunakan cognate object dalam bentuk aktif.
Aktif : She sang a fine song. Ia menyanyikan sebuah nyanyian yang merdu
Pasif : A fine song was sung by her. Sebuah nyanyian yang merdu dinyanyikan olehnya
b) Bilamana kalimat diubah dari bentuk aktif ke pasif, objek untuk kata kerja aktif menjadi subjek untuk kalimat kerja pasif.
objek untuk kata kerja aktif :
Aktif: Linda can make tarts. Linda dapat membuat kue tart
Subjek untuk kata kerja pasif :
Pasif: Tarts can be made by Linda
c) Retained object (objek yang tetap dipakai/dipertahankan dalam pasif)
Dua buah objek dalam kalimat aktif, ketika diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, masih tetap ada sebuah objek dipertahankan, objek ini dinamakan retained object. Objek ini mungkin objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif atau objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif.
Objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif
Kata Kerja aktif Kata kerja pasif
We gave him A prize was given him by us
Objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif
Kata Kerja aktif Kata kerja pasif
We gave him a prize He was given a prize by us
Berikut contoh-contoh kalimat aktif yang dirubah menjadi kalimat pasif dalam bentuk tenses :
1) Simple present
Aktif
John bites Mary
John doesn’t bite Mary
Does John bite Mary?
What does John do?
Who bites Mary?
Who does John bite?
Pasif
Mary is bitten by John
Mary isn’t bitten by John
Is Mary bitten by John?
What is done by John?
Who is Mary bitten by?
Who is bitten by John?
2) Simple continuous
Aktif
John is biting Mary
John isn’t biting Mary
Is John biting Mary?
What is John doing?
Who is biting Mary?
Who is John biting?
Pasif
Mary is being bitten by John
Mary isn’t being bitten by John
Is Mary being bitten by John?
What is being done by John?
Who is Mary being bitten by?
Who is being bitten by John?
3) Present perfect
Aktif
John has bitten Mary
John hasn’t bitten Mary
Has John bitten Mary?
What has John done?
Who has bitten Mary?
Who has John bitten?
Pasif
Mary has been bitten by John
Mary hasn’t been bitten by John
Has Mary been bitten by John?
What has been done by John?
Who has Mary been bitten by?
Who has been bitten by John?
4) Present perfect continuous
Aktif
John has been biting Mary
John hasn’t been biting Mary
Has John been biting Mary?
What has John been doing?
Who has been biting Mary?
Who has John been biting?
Pasif
Mary has been being bitten by John
Mary hasn’t been being bitten by John
Has Mary been being bitten by John?
What has been being done by John?
Who has Mary been being bitten by?
Who has been being bitten by John?
5) Simple past
Aktif
John bit Mary
John didn’t bite Mary
Did John bite Mary?
What did John do?
Who bit Mary?
Who did John bite?
Pasif
Mary was bitten by John
Mary wasn’t bitten by John
Was Mary bitten by John?
What was done by John?
Who was Mary bitten by?
Who was bitten by John?
6) Past continuous
Aktif
John was biting Mary
John wasn’t biting Mary
Was John biting Mary?
What was John doing?
Who was biting Mary?
Who was John biting?
Pasif
Mary was being bitten by John
Mary wasn’t being bitten by John
Was Mary being bitten by John?
What was being done by John?
Who was Mary being bitten by?
Who was being bitten by John?
7) Past perfect
Aktif
John had bitten Mary
John hadn’t bitten Mary
Had John bitten Mary?
What had John done?
Who had bitten Mary?
Who had John bitten?
Pasif
Mary had been bitten by John
Mary hadn’t been bitten by John
Had Mary been bitten by John?
What had been done by John?
Who had Mary been bitten by?
Who had been bitten by John?
8)  Past perfect continuous
Aktif
John had been biting Mary
John hadn’t been biting Mary
Had John been biting Mary?
What had John been doing?
Who had been biting Mary?
Who had John been biting?
Pasif
Mary had been being bitten by John
Mary hadn’t been being bitten by John
Had Mary been being bitten by John?
What had been being done by John?
Who had Mary been being bitten by?
Who had been being bitten by John?
9) Future
Aktif
John will bite Mary
John won’t bite Mary
Will John bite Mary?
What will John do?
Who will bite Mary?
Who will John bite?
Pasif
Mary will be bitten by John
Mary won’t be bitten by John
Will Mary be bitten by John?
What will be done by John?
Who will Mary be bitten by?
Who will be bitten by John?
10) Future continuous
Aktif
John will be biting Mary
John won’t be biting Mary
Will John be biting Mary?
What will John be doing?
Who will be biting Mary?
Who will John be biting?
Pasif
Mary will be being bitten by John
Mary won’t be being bitten by John
Will Mary be being bitten by John?
What will be being done by John?
Who will Mary be being bitten by?
Who will be being bitten by John?
11) Future perfect
Aktif
John will have bitten Mary
John won’t have bitten Mary
Will John have bitten Mary?
What will John have done?
Who will have bitten Mary?
Who will John have bitten?
Pasif
Mary will have been bitten by John
Mary won’t have been bitten by John
Will Mary have been bitten by John?
What will have been done by John?
Who will Mary have been bitten by?
Who will have been bitten by John?
12) Future perfect continuous
Aktif
John will have been biting Mary
John won’t have been biting Mary
Will John have been biting Mary?
What will John have been doing?
Who will have been biting Mary?
Who will John have been biting?
Pasif
Mary will have been being bitten by John
Mary won’t have been being bitten by John
Will Mary have been being bitten by John?
What will have been being done by John?
Who will Mary have been being bitten by?
Who will have been being bitten by John?
Kata-kata kerja transitif kadang-kadang mempunyai arti pasif walaupun bentuk kalimatnya adalah aktif :
a) Dengan komplemen
Sugar tastes sweet (pasif: sugar is sweet when it is tasted). Gula manis rasanya (gula manis bila
dirasakan)
b) Tanpa komplemen
The books is printing (pasif: the book is being printed). Buku itu sedang dicetak
The cows are milking (pasif: the cows are being milked). Sapi-sapi itu sedang diperah
Kesimpulan :
TENSES
ACTIVE
PASSIVE
Simple Present
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Tense
Past Continuous
Simple Future
Be going to
Past perfect
Future perfect
Mary
Mary
Mary
Mary
Mary
Mary
Mary Mary
Mary
Helps
is helping
has helped
helped
was helping
will help
is going to help
had helped
will have helped
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
is helped
is being helped
has been helped
was helped
was being helped
will be helped
is going to be helped
had been helped
will have been helped
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
by Mary
Ketentuan : Semua bentuk pasif verbnya menggunakan bentuk ketiga (V3)

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